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styrene polymer poisoning

It is quickly broken down in the air, usually within 1-2 days.[3]. Research studies and literature reviews are sponsored with the intention of making regulators and the public aware of this information via publication in peer-reviewed journals. No symptoms for this chemical or chemical group are available. Styrene is also used as an intermediate in the composition of materials used for ion exchange resins and to produce copolymers. 2012. Animal studies that assessed developmental effects show styrene does not cause malformations or developmental structural changes at inhalation exposures of up to 600 ppm and oral exposures of up to 250 mg/kg/day. Refer to https://developers.facebook.com/docs/apps/review/login-permissions#manage-pages and https://developers.facebook.com/docs/apps/review/feature#reference-PAGES_ACCESS for details. An investigation of the effect of chronic occupational exposure to styrene in workers on olfactory function found no effects on smell with mean styrene exposures of 26 ppm (range 10-60 ppm). 2016. SIRC also commissions independent reviews of the health effects studies on styrene where data already exist. Styrene is also one of almost 3,000 chemicals listed by the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) as being used in fragrance. [16] A 2007 study on male rat offspring found that prenatal exposure to styrene at low levels obstructed genital organ development, and disrupted the endocrine systems. WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Styrene/acrylates copolymer, styrene butadiene copolymer, polystyrene, styrene copolymer, styrene resin, ethylbenzene, and vinylbenzene. Styrene-Butadiene Copolymer . Styrene-induced mouse lung tumors are likely not relevant to humans. SIRC’s 30-year mission has been to sponsor research focused on answering questions about the potential health effects of exposure to styrene. The potential for styrene to produce effects on the endocrine system, specifically on (anti)estrogenic, (anti)androgenic, thyroid, and prolactin activities has been the subject of a number of studies. In Visakhapatnam, the styrene gas leak caused acute breathlessness among many people, a few of whom asphyxiated to death. Next, in 1866 Berthelot polymerized styrene using either iodine or sulfuric acid. [15], Endocrine Disruption: The European Commission on Endocrine Disruption classifies styrene as a Category 1 endocrine disruptor, meaning evidence for endocrine disruption has been documented in humans and wildlife. Cosmetic Ingredient Review. [15] and Sodium styrene/Acrylates copolymer when used in leave-on cosmetics products with a maximum concentration limit of 0.06%, taking into account the reasonably foreseeable exposure conditions. [5] IFRA: International Fragrance Association. ToxFAQs for Styrene. [14] OEHHA: Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Additionally, upon exposure to light and air, styrene undergoes polymerization and oxidation, with the formation of peroxides. ; Proposition 65 requires businesses to determine if they must provide a warning about exposure to listed chemicals. 44 Similar exposure conditions resulted in an insignificant reduction in reaction time with no change in manual dexterity or perceptual speed. Created for consumers, educators, the media, and industry employees, youknowstyrene.org is a reliable, one-stop source of information on styrene and styrene-based products. [1] Leslie HA. Styrene isn’t known to leach out of hard plastics, but some evidence suggests that it can leach out of foam food containers and cups when food or drinks are hot – not when they’re cold. The human cancer evidence for styrene and workplace exposure is inconclusive and not supported by animal toxicity and mechanistic information but, as such, remains a concern. Retrieved August 31, 2016, from http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/styrene.pdf. Styrene reacts violently [1] There is a contamination concern with this ingredient and related ingredients. Styrene. HOW TO AVOID: Read product ingredient labels, and avoid items with fragrance or styrene acrylates copolymer listed as ingredients. Human studies have primarily examined female fertility whereas fewer studies examined male fertility, congenital malformations, and spontaneous abortions. Polystyrene can be solid or foamed. Styrene. It is also known as vinylbenzene, ethenylbenzene, cinnamene, or phenylethylene. [8] Exposure to solvents including styrene can result in an increased risk of breast cancer. © 2020 Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, a project of, https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/hhra/recordisplay.cfm?deid=39304, http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/TF.asp?id=420&tid=74, http://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/styrene, http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/styrene/index.cfm, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/docum/pdf/bkh_annex_13.pdf. [14] The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences reported that styrene has been linked to increased risks for cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma, and genetic damage in the white blood cells, or lymphocytes, of workers exposed to styrene. Styrene, like many volatile hydrocarbon chemicals, can cause mild and reversible nervous system effects if workplace exposures are not controlled. [5] The product that contained styrene did not have fragrance as a listed ingredient, but it is theoretically possible that fragranced ingredients could contain trace levels of styrene. 45 In a study of workers in a plant that manufactured fiberglass and reinforced … 4. Styrene has been tested for potential to induce genetic damage in several animal species (mouse, rat, Chinese hamster) using different genetic endpoints and exposure routes. Long-term exposure to styrene in humans results in effects on the central nervous system (CNS), such as headache, fatigue, weakness, and depression, CSN dysfunction, hearing loss, and nerve damage.[18],[19]. [18],[19], REGULATIONS: Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations – Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications.[20]. Styrene may also serve as a film-forming agent. Some of these chemicals are defined as priority pollutants, which are regulated by governmental agencies because of their toxicity or persistence in organisms and food webs. Human exposure to styrene vapor. Because these sections merely summarize the scientific information, specific references are not provided but are available upon request. [9] Cantor KP, Stewart PA, Brinton LA, Dosemeci M. Occupational exposures and female breast cancer mortality in the United States. If the victim has collapsed or is unconscious, call 911. This study found lung toxicity in mice that retained the lung enzyme, whereas mice with this enzyme absent or with the human enzyme present exhibited no lung toxicity. Polystyrene (PS) / ˌ p ɒ l i ˈ s t aɪ r iː n / is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer known as styrene. Arch Environ Health 16:656-662. Increases in malignant mammary tumors were found in all styrene exposure groups in one study and in a second study at 600 ppm styrene but not at 1000 ppm, but a third study found a dose-related decrease in malignant mammary tumors at all styrene concentrations (50-1000) ppm styrene. There may be other diseases and chemicals that have similar symptoms. The styrene concentrations that cause neurobehavioral and neurosensory effects are more than 1,000 times higher than the levels usually found in the environment. 2007 Feb 1;232(2):301-8. [7] Fragranced products are often in an aerosol or spray form, allowing for inhalation. There is also some evidence for increased risk of cancer in the pancreas or esophagus among some styrene workers, but the evidence is weaker than that for lymphohematopoietic cancers. Annex 13. FOUND IN: Styrene acrylates copolymer and related styrene-based polymers are most often found in nail polish, sunscreen (SPF greater than 30), sunscreen moisturizer, body wash/cleanser, shampoo and eyeliner. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2016 Oct. Health & Education. A father rushes to take his child for treatment at King George Hospital. The human carcinogenic potential of styrene has been evaluated in a number of epidemiology studies of workers employed in three industrial settings: the fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRP) industry, manufacture of styrene monomer and polystyrene, and production of synthetic rubber (styrene … Styrene is of low concern for potential genotoxic effects. Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. Available online:  http://www.safecosmetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Pretty-Scary_2016.pdf. Inhalation of styrene following a single exposure can lead to irritation of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, increased nasal secretion, wheezing and coughing. lative exposure or exposure to periodic spikes of high styrene con-centrations (styrene peaks, defined as ≥ 50 ppm) involving statistical models with (1) styrene exposure only, (2) styrene and butadiene ex-posure, and (3) styrene and butadiene exposure plus dermal exposure to dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC). Instead, it would require lab testing to determine if it is present in products, and at what levels. Styrene acrylates copolymer itself has no evidence of adverse health effects, but our tests illustrate its potential contamination with styrene. Styrene is used predominately in the production of polystyrene plastics and resins. Several studies have reported elevated serum prolactin concentrations in FRP workers associated with high styrene exposures, however, the prolactin levels reported were within normal ranges and adverse effects associated with these findings have not been identified. [6] Safety Assessment of Styrene and Vinyl-type Styrene Copolymers as Used in Cosmetics. Studies of general population environmental and consumer styrene exposure and cancer are less informative than the worker studies, but the available evidence does not suggest these low exposures are a concern. However, contamination with the possible carcinogen styrene is a concern. gov/iris/subst/0104.htm. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/docum/pdf/bkh_annex_13.pdf. Error: (#10) This endpoint requires the 'manage_pages' or 'pages_read_user_content' permission or the 'Page Public Content Access' feature. This is known as autopolymerisation, and will take place at ambient temperatures and above. acute toxicity, hearing damage and is suspected of reproductive toxicity. Overall, these fertility studies did not find a consistent pattern of adverse effects and reports on malformations/abortions are limited by small number of subjects, imprecise exposure information for styrene, and potential exposure to other substances. Styrene is a colorless, flammable liquid, which has a sweet odor and is highly volatile. Tiunov LA, Zhuvov VG, et al. At 100 °C it will polymerise at a rate of ~2% per hour, and more rapidly than this at higher temperatures. Styrene. There are no strong or consistent indications that styrene causes any form of cancer in humans. Styrene/Acrylates Copolymer is a polymer of styrene and a monomer consisting of acrylicacid, methacrylic acid or one of their simple esters. Authorities in the United States and the United Kingdom have assessed styrene’s potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity and found styrene to be a low concern for reproductive and developmental toxicity at environmental and occupational exposures. Endocrine Disruption: The European Commission on Endocrine Disruption classifies styrene as a Category 1 endocrine disruptor, meaning evidence for endocrine disruption has been documented in humans and wildlife. There are no indications that occupational or environmental exposures to styrene produces adverse effects on fertility or development including potential endocrine disruptor effects. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. 1999 Apr 1; 35(4): 382–389. Unable to display Facebook posts.Show errorfunction cffShowError() { document.getElementById("cff-error-reason").style.display = "block"; document.getElementById("cff-show-error").style.display = "none"; }, A project of Breast Cancer Prevention Partners. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/docum/pdf/bkh_annex_13.pdf. Available online: http://www.epa. Styrene Information & Research Center Visual function deficits are reported in rats and monkeys exposed to styrene, although color vision impairment has not been specifically examined. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Available online: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/hhra/recordisplay.cfm?deid=39304, [19] ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. This indicates that it can cause tumor growth in locations other than where it is formed. Instead, it would require lab testing to determine if it is present in products, and at what levels. The following sections review the scientific data on styrene for a variety of potential health endpoints. Violent polymerization may be initiated by alkali metal-graphite composites, but yllithium, dibenzoyl peroxide, azoisobutyronitrile or di-tert-butyl peroxide. Styrene is also used as an intermediate in the composition of materials used for ion exchange resins and to produce copolymers. [8] Exposure to solvents including styrene can result in an increased risk of breast cancer. 2016. In our 2016 report focusing on kids’ makeup products our lab results found trace amounts of residual styrene in one stick-on nail product. Even in trace amounts it is concerning to have the presence of a carcinogen in products marketed to children and adults. Considering the nature of the workplace exposures and the physiology of prolactin, work-place stress has been identified as a plausible explanation for the observed prolactin elevations. According to Tox Town, a website run by the US National Library of Medicine, styrene is also found in vehicle exhaust, cigarette smoke, and in natural foods like fruits and vegetables. Styrene will polymerise when contaminated by oxidising agents and most halides. In bacteria and yeast cells, styrene generally produced negative genotoxic results, although some studies gave positive findings using exogenous metabolic activation systems, suggesting that styrene can become metabolically activated (presumably to SO) in vitro. The CYP2F2 metabolism has been shown to be a key event (gateway) to styrene mouse lung toxicity as evidenced by both short- and long-term studies in mice where the CYP2F2 enzyme is absent have completely attenuated lung toxicity. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you agree to our, Developmental, Reproductive, and Endocrine Toxicity. Occupational studies indicate styrene is ototoxic in humans, as exhibited by increases in hearing thresholds at high sound frequencies, although there are uncertainties regarding the dose-response (threshold) relationship and the impact of co-exposure to noise. If you have a poisoning emergency in the United States call 1-800-222-1222. The harmful chemicals associated with plastics can be divided into three categories: ingredients of the plastic material, byproducts of manufacturing and chemicals adsorbed from the environment. Gurman et al. At exposures in excess of 50 ppm (8-hour time-weighted average), styrene may cause temporary nervous system effects such as drowsiness and delayed reaction time. MORE... Cancer: Styrene is a reasonably anticipated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer[12] and by the National Toxicology Program. [13] IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer. It often contains other chemicals that give it a sharp, unpleasant smell. Available online: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/TF.asp?id=420&tid=74. Ingredients. 4Additional properties of styrene are presented in Table 3. This substance is used for the manufacture of: … [6] If ingested, styrene can be toxic to red blood cells and the liver and if inhaled, it is toxic to the central nervous system. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. However, reduced pup growth and pup developmental delays were seen postnatally in rats at exposure levels (300-500 ppm) causing, in some cases, maternal toxicity. General-purpose polystyrene is clear, hard, and rather brittle. Our tests did not reveal detectable levels of styrene in fragranced products tested. It's a colorless liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell. These effects are of possible concern at higher exposures that may be experienced in the workplace, but not for the low exposures associated with consumer uses or the environment. [18] EPA: Environmental Protection Agency. Thermal degradation of styrene-containing polymers also releases styrene into ambient air (16). Researchers have conducted studies in workers and in laboratory animals to investigate the potential effects styrene exposure may have on hearing. Available online: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/hhra/recordisplay.cfm?deid=39304, [3] ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Formulations prepared with SBC resin as base polymer offer a unique combination of properties like tensile strength, flexibility, tackiness, adhesion, etc. It is quickly broken down in the air, usually within 1-2 days. The best information currently available on the threshold for hearing deficits in humans comes from a study of German boat-building workers that found no hearing loss for current exposures of 7.6–15.2 ppm and six years of exposure to 39-49 ppm, whereas workers that had work exposures of about 30-50 ppm for approximately 15 years and experienced approximately five years of median TWA styrene exposure of 80 ppm had evidence of hearing loss. [16] A 2007 study on male rat offspring found that prenatal exposure to styrene at low levels obstructed genital organ development, and disrupted the endocrine systems. Styrene has been thoroughly evaluated for reproductive and developmental effects in animal studies. Available online: http://www.ifraorg.org/en-us/ingredients#.V8nKn-krKUk Accessed September 2016. [6] If ingested, styrene can be toxic to red blood cells and the liver and if inhaled, it is toxic to the central nervous system. Styrene acrylates copolymer itself has no evidence of adverse health effects, but our tests illustrate its potential contamination with styrene. In humans, styrene has been reported to affect color vision (usually of the tritan type affecting blue-yellow color discrimination), although, as with ototoxicity, interpreting the dose-response (threshold) concentrations is difficult due to past higher exposures that may have impacted color vision. There is the potential for styrena acrylates copolymer to be contaminated with styrene, a possible carcinogen. Available online: http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/styrene/index.cfm. Styrene is primarily a synthetic chemical. Other effects: Short-term exposure to styrene in humans results in mucous membrane and eye irritation, and gastrointestinal effects. [12] European Commission. Integrated Risk Information System, 2014. [17] Ohyama KI, Satoh K, Sakamoto Y, Ogata A, Nagai F. Effects of prenatal exposure to styrene trimers on genital organs and hormones in male rats. There is one report of styrene exposed workers that suggested an interaction of styrene with the thyroid, but this study has important limitations and this finding is not supported by a large number of repeated-dose and multigeneration guideline animal studies showing no effects on thyroid histopathology or organ weight. [2] EPA: Environmental Protection Agency. The tumorigenic response of styrene is dependent on the balance between the rate of activation and rate of detoxification, though information on these rates in humans is not available. Mortality and cancer incidence in biomedical laboratory personnel in Sweden. A number of older studies linked small losses in color discrimination with workplace air concentrations of greater or equal to 18.5 ppm. 400 E Joppa Road, Suite 108 American journal of industrial medicine. and have found wide applications in diverse markets. The most recently performed inhalation study was a cancer mechanistic study that examined the role of a mouse metabolism enzyme, Cytochrome P450 2F2 (CYP2F2) and a human metabolism enzyme, CYP2F1, on lung toxicity and tumorigenicity. Toxicity of sulfothreenaphtilenfurane. Much of this information, however, cannot be meaningfully interpreted given limitations in study design, population heterogeneity, potential co-exposures to other genotoxic substances, and in the styrene exposure information. It is an inexpensive resin per unit weight. Styrene. Although some studies suggest that styrene-exposed workers may be at increased cancer risk, the human evidence for styrene carcinogenicity is inconclusive. Styrene NAC: 02/2008 vii repeated exposure of rats through gestation day 6 – 20 to 300 ppm, an increased neonatal death rate and delayed postnatal development was observed compared to … [17] [17], Other effects: Short-term exposure to styrene in humans results in mucous membrane and eye irritation, and gastrointestinal effects. The possible toxicological responses caused by plastic can thus be a combination of all of these chemicals. [3], Styrene acrylates copolymer may contain a small amount of residual styrene. Mice are more susceptible than rats to styrene-induced nasal toxicity (20 ppm produced nasal toxicity in mice, whereas no nasal toxicity was observed at 200 ppm in rats) and humans are expected to be considerably less sensitive than rodents due to significant anatomical and metabolic differences. [1982]. The gene expression changes signify a non-genotoxic, rodent- and rodent strain-specific MOA-related to activation of nuclear receptor signaling with attendant cell proliferation (primarily mitogenesis), changes in cellular metabolism, and activation of immune response pathways, and, later, alteration in circadian clock genes associated with control of cancer. The styrene gas that leaked from LG Polymers which has killed at least seven people and created panic in several areas of Visakhapatnam leading … Retrieved August 31, 2016, from http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/styrene.pdf. Authorities in the United States and the United Kingdom have found styrene to be a low concern for reproductive and developmental toxicity at environmental and occupational exposures. List of 146 substances with endocrine disruption classifications prepared in the Expert meeting. Both assessments, however, did identify elevated prolactin levels in exposed workers as a finding noting that the interpretation of the clinical relevance is uncertain. While much of SIRC’s work has focused on addressing styrene’s carcinogenic potential, researchers also have investigated styrene’s potential effects on non-cancer health effects, including: neurotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, and genotoxicity. 202-787-5996. 1999 Jul 1;36(1):48-53. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-800-232-4636. There is the potential for styrena acrylates copolymer to be contaminated with styrene, a possible carcinogen. Neurological impacts reported include neurobehavioral and neurosensory effects (impaired olfaction, audition, and color discrimination). This substance is used in the following products: polymers, coating products, metal surface treatment products, non-metal-surface treatment products, inks and toners, paper chemicals and dyes and washing & cleaning products. Institute for Environmental Studies [IVM]. There is no convincing evidence that styrene has shown genotoxic activity in humans. The nervous system is the most sensitive target of long-term styrene exposure. It is the mucous membrane that is mainly affected by exposure to styrene gas. It dissolves in some liquids but doesn't dissolve easily in water. Indicator tests detecting sister chromatid (SCE), DNA strand breaks, DNA methylation, and DNA adducts have also produced variable results for styrene. ... Styrene block polymers with butadiene are available with a styrene content of 25% to 50%, and the Styrene is metabolized in mice to ring-oxidized metabolites that, when produced in sufficient amounts, result in gene expression changes in mouse lung tissue. The characteristic unpleasant smell and low odour threshold (0.1 ppm; 0.43 mg/m3) allows styrene to be readily detected in the workplace at levels below the occupational exposure standards. [9],[10],[11], Cancer: Styrene is a reasonably anticipated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer[12] and by the National Toxicology Program. 2014 Jul. 2006. Overall, the available information indicates that styrene does not interfere with the estrogen-androgen-thyroid systems. Therefore, there is no convincing evidence that styrene has shown genotoxic activity in humans. On exposure to lig ht and air, styrene slowly undergoes polymerization and oxidation with format ion of peroxides. Styrene is a colorless liquid that evaporates easily and smells sweet. Styrene acrylates copolymer is a chain of polymers consisting of styrene and acrylate which is added to cosmetics for color. 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