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mistaken identity article

Detectives believe this was a case of mistaken identity. “I was shaking … it was like a total nightmare,” she said Saturday, recalling the ordeal. Bill Boddy Browse pages. You imagine something, and it feels like a memory. “I was a basket case.”. In the years since, numerous studies have supported that finding. In 2011, the New Jersey Supreme Court issued a landmark decision requiring judges to instruct jurors on the limits of eyewitness identification. 2 min read This is another (gross) case of mistaken identity. COVID-19 resources for psychologists, health-care workers and the public. A 2011 meta-analysis of 72 studies by Wells and colleagues found that eyewitnesses made fewer mistaken identifications when suspects were presented in sequential, rather than simultaneous, lineups (Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2011). A confident eyewitness could be just as likely to get the ID right — or wrong — as a less confident witness. by Mark Lacagnina | September 11, 2017. Case of mistaken identity 'a total nightmare' for mom of homeless man. In a traditional lineup, a witness views six to nine potential suspects (or their photographs) simultaneously. Wells remains skeptical of the ROC method. But in the last two decades, numerous analyses have converged on the fact that eyewitness confidence is actually a strong indicator of accuracy. Cancer is really a stem cell disease, argue George Murphy and Malcolm R Alison “Mrs Smith, I'm afraid you have cancer.” The words die on your lips as you wait to see how she reacts-a bolt from the blue or just official confirmation of a long nursed suspicion? It is the ideology that emerged to appropriate this emancipatory legacy in service of the advancement of political and economic elites.” "Despite the fact that there are a few issues and controversies, we still have a whole lot of things we agree on," Loftus says. The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. Representational Image. ", Yet law enforcement officers can include anyone in a lineup. Mistaken identity. May 2013, Vol 44, No. In a suspected case of mistaken identity, an autorickshaw driver, T. Ramu, 26, of Peraiyur was kidnapped and assaulted by an unidentified gang under T. Kallupatti police station limits on Tuesday. In fact, eyewitness misidentification has played a role in more than 70 percent of wrongfully convicted individuals, according to the Innocence Project, an organization that works to exonerate wrongfully convicted people. Visit our Community Guidelines for more information and details on how to adjust your email settings. The above illustration in CHESS , given in C.N. Wixted agrees with the academy's recommendation for more research. Since I was such a novice, I thought my bosses wouldn’t send women out to dark and frightening places. When she finally chose Cotton, she said, "I think that's him." Is eyewitness identification more reliable than we think? "On issues of both confidence and lineup format, the field for years was making a mistake in how they analyzed the data, and in both cases arrived at the wrong conclusion," Wixted says. One night in 1984, a stranger broke into Jennifer Thompson-Cannino's apartment and raped her. The committee's report underscored the importance of cluing into a witness's initial confidence. "I think it's essential that the larger community of basic experimental psychologists turns its attention to these matters," he says. The report's authors concluded that previous analytical methods conflated accuracy with willingness to make an identification. "It's easily contaminated, and it can fade with time.". Rhitu Chatterjee * Rhitu Chatterjee is a science writer in Washington, D.C. See all Hide authors and affiliations. Mistaken Identity. From magazine issue: 5 November 2016. A terrified family suffered a case of mistaken identity after calling a snake catcher out in the middle of the night - all to save them from a stripey mushroom. Print version: page 35. Wells, however, is hopeful that science will continue to chip away at the problem, finding new and better methods to reduce mistaken IDs without reducing accurate ones. And yet she was wrong. Publishing date: Oct 31, 2020 • • 1 minute read. Ganny said Peter, who lives in a city shelter near the airport and had his ID stolen, is 56. Steblay, N. K., Wells, G. L., & Douglass, A. 5. APA 2013 Annual Convention keynote speaker Barry Scheck will speak on how The Innocence Project is using psychologists' research to help prevent wrongful convictions. Prosecutors criticised over jailing of Eritrean man wrongly identified as human trafficker. Sign up to receive daily headline news from the Toronto SUN, a division of Postmedia Network Inc. A welcome email is on its way. Like the author of the article we contacted the manufacturers and the Medicines Control Agency. Memory works the same way," he says. This advertisement has not loaded yet, but your article continues below. ", Still, Clark cautions that it may not be possible to significantly reduce the number of mistaken IDs without letting more criminals go free. He spent 33 hours in the Cobb County Jail, pleading with his … Today, one species, Hirudo medicinalis , is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared device that is widely used to help reattached scalps and fingers as they … However, despite concluding that ROC analysis has advantages over previous methods, the authors also noted some concerns that ROC could be influenced by certain measurement errors and biases. 14 Current page. "You get one memory test, and one test only.". But, he says, that switch might have been a mistake. But eyewitness identification has been responsible for serious miscarriages of justice. But to make the most informed decisions about eyewitness procedures, Clark says, law enforcement officers and policymakers need to be aware of the trade-offs. "We shouldn't even ask witnesses to make an ID in the courtroom because that's really kind of worthless," Gronlund says. Mistaken identity What if a novelist celebrated as a pioneer of African-American women's literature turned out not to be black at all? In light of such evidence, the Innocence Project endorsed the method, and many police departments changed their lineup procedures. Wells agrees it's crucial for law enforcement officers to pay attention to initial confidence. "You don't get to go back six months later and examine a crime scene again because it's been contaminated by then. The decision in Shogun Finance Ltd v. Hudson [2003] 3 WLR 1371 dealt with the notion of mistaken identity and considered the rules of agency when dealing with the formation of a hire purchase contract. ... but ProtonMail and Signal can be used to protect your identity by using end-to-end encryption. Unlike previous analytical methods, ROC analysis takes into account how confident a witness is at the time he or she picks a suspect from a lineup. LEVY: Homeless man dies after living 7 months in bus shelter, LEVY: Woman living in North York bus shelter since June, tap here to see other videos from our team. 1 Current page. As scientists continue to refine their methods, I hope these points of controversy won't take away from the rest of the story. : 1861 - 1954), Sat 13 Nov 1869, Page 2 - SINGULAR CASE OF MISTAKEN IDENTITY. "If he's there, they can do a fair job of picking him. To minimize that risk, Wells recommends creating administrative rules that require some reasonable suspicion before presenting someone's face to the witness. Following that flurry of DNA-fueled exonerations, law enforcement agencies started paying closer attention to the science of memory and identification, says Gary Wells, PhD, a psychologist at Iowa State University who has studied eyewitness identification since the 1970s. Mistaken identity. July 7th 2014 Author. Fillers should generally fit the witness's physical account of the suspect. In the years since Cotton was exonerated, he and Thompson-Cannino co-authored the 2010 bestselling book "Picking Cotton" about their experience, and have campaigned together to reform eyewitness identification procedures. They say on Saturday a car similar to what Jeffries and Manuel were driving was stolen in East Portland and used in a bunch of crimes. Around the same time, Peter’s cell number came up on her phone, she said, adding he showed up at her door soon after. 10 Current page. There are two predominant hypotheses as to why animals ingest plastic: 1) they are opportunistic feeders, eating plastic when they encounter it, and 2) they eat plastic because it resembles prey items. The problem, they say, is that previous analytical methods confounded accuracy with a witness's willingness to choose a suspect. 11 Current page. "In recent times we've seen some great successes, in terms of the legal system waking up and paying attention to the body of scientific work. 4 Current page. But in the 1980s, Wells started testing a new method: sequential lineups, in which possible suspects are viewed one at a time rather than all at once. By Holly Jackson. We encountered an issue signing you up. The problem, experts say, is in considering what witnesses say on the stand. (2014). He found that sequential lineups resulted in a significant decrease in the false identification rate, with only a small drop in the correct identification rate. "People have incredible difficulty recognizing the absence of the perpetrator," he says. But when they do pick a suspect, they might be at greater risk of making the wrong choice. Mistaken identity. Italian judges find 'serious neglect' in mistaken identity case. Our Correspondent. She was asked to come down to the morgue and identify the body. On Dec 15, 2014 0. As the day went on, Ganny said her other son and daughter called around and discovered it wasn’t Peter who had met his death in the bus shelter. Unauthorized distribution, transmission or republication strictly prohibited. Reports a young AFL player touted as a rising star had been involved in a dramatic car crash caused a stir in Montmorency, until the case of mistaken identity was uncovered. "The original memory is fading, you're reconstructing the event with new information available to you, or new sources of suggestion. Later, in a photo lineup, she identified Ronald Cotton — a 22-year-old man who looked strikingly like her sketch and had previous run-ins with the law. When Thompson-Cannino identified Cotton in court, she was certain she was pointing to the man who raped her. Initial eyewitness confidence reliably predicts eyewitness identification accuracy. We also had an incident caused by this similarity. Mistaken identity is a defense in criminal law which claims the actual innocence of the criminal defendant, and attempts to undermine evidence of guilt by asserting that any eyewitness to the crime incorrectly thought that they saw the defendant, when in fact the person seen by the witness was someone else. Other states are discussing similar instructions, Wells says. ", In Clark's view, debates in the field are a good thing. In a traditional lineup, a witness views six to nine potential suspects (or their photographs) simultaneously. Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives, Call for Papers/Proposals/Nominations (43), © 2020 American Psychological Association. "You have to treat eyewitness evidence as a form of trace evidence," Wells says, not unlike the fibers and hairs and gunpowder residue that investigators collect from a crime scene. [Figure][1] CREDIT: ANDREI UTEVSKY Until the mid-1800s, leeches were applied to treat ailments including headaches, stomach pain, obesity, fever, and even mental illness, after which their efficacy was seriously doubted. Postmedia is committed to maintaining a lively but civil forum for discussion and encourage all readers to share their views on our articles. "If you look at the literature, this is just not true.". Imagine a witness who hesitates when identifying a suspect from a lineup. In reality, memories aren't merely played back but are freshly reassembled every time they're recalled. However, having advocated for sequential lineups in years past, he now says he suspects that in the end, the two lineup methods won't differ much in their rates of false identifications. "One of the claims that the eyewitness field has made for years is that we can implement new procedures that will substantially reduce the false identification rate with little or no loss of correct identifications," he says. Among the committee's findings was a recommendation that law enforcement officers videotape the initial witness-identification process and document the witness's confidence judgment at the time he or she first identifies a suspect. The following information provides an awareness of problems that might be avoided in the future. In a recent meta-analysis of studies from around the globe, he and his colleagues found that confirming feedback (such as "Good, you picked the suspect") strongly inflated an eyewitness's confidence in his or her judgments (Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2014). 7 Current page. Science 16 Feb 2007: Vol. 315, Issue 5814, pp. But if he's not there, they tend to pick somebody else. Cotton was convicted of rape and sentenced to life in prison. Weir, K. (2016, February). Comments may take up to an hour for moderation before appearing on the site. Author of the article: Sue-Ann Levy. But the samples did match the DNA of another convict, Bobby Poole — who, it turned out, had told a fellow inmate he had committed the crime. There was an error, please provide a valid email address. In the years since, numerous … The mistaken identity that led to Australian soldiers allegedly killing the wrong man. "A science is really healthy when we take stock of what we don't know, and ask new questions or ask old questions in different ways," he says. Mistaken Identity The called traffic, a 767, was bearing down on final approach when the pilot of a piston twin cut in front, following the wrong airplane. Using that analysis, sequential lineups don't appear to be beneficial — and might lead to slightly more misidentifications than simultaneous lineups, Gronlund and Wixted have reported (Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2014). Mistaken Identity defines identity politics as the “neutralization of movements against racial oppression. 13 Current page. Case of mistaken identity 'a total nightmare' for mom of homeless man. Special Holiday Offers for Online Subscriptions! Kris Erickson, Philip N. Howard, A Case of Mistaken Identity? Mistaken identity! Efforts to get a comment from the police were unsuccessful Saturday. ! ", For that reason, the only eyewitness identification that really matters is the first one, Wixted says. The next issue of The Toronto Sun Headline News will soon be in your inbox. "It works in certain contexts, but not in a lineup," he says. "The science is going to be much better as a result. In the end, the officers let Mr Khan go and his family claim the episode was a case of mistaken identity. 3 Current page. 3974 and in Excuses for Losing at Chess , was the frontispiece to Chess Life-Pictures by George Alcock MacDonnell (London, 1883): "If you use poor fillers, an innocent suspect who does fit the description is at high risk of being identified," he says. I was so new in fact, that I hadn’t even met all of my bosses. Mistaken Identity. After the assault, Thompson-Cannino, then a 22-year-old college student, helped police sketch artists create a composite picture of her attacker. ", What emerges is an inaccurate memory that is rich with details that feel very real, says Elizabeth Loftus, PhD, a psychologist at the University of California, Irvine, well-known for her work on human memory. Shared by Megan Colleen | Leave a Comment. “I was just shaking inside … my nerves were just shot,” Ganny said. 9 Current page. The police officer smiles and says "good job," and the witness's confidence grows. While gingival cancers can be difficult to detect, survival rates depend on early treatment. In 2014, a committee of the National Academy of Sciences issued a report recommending best practices for eyewitness identification procedures. But don’t worry, either: Mistaken Identity doesn’t include any crusading born-again numbers, like 1980’s The Wanderer. Mistaken identity Critics hail it as an honourable failure, but Laura Morera excels in the Royal Ballet’s new production and even Act Two has its moments. You have corrected this article This article has been corrected by You and other Voluntroves This article has been corrected by Voluntroves But in the 1980s, Wells started testing a new method: sequential lineups, in which possible suspects are viewed one at a time rather than all at once. 6 Current page. One area the National Academy committee did not take sides on was the debate over sequential versus simultaneous lineups. Much more critical, Wells says, is the choice of "fillers," the nonsuspect individuals in a lineup. Now, however, some psychologists say some of those changes may have been premature. As noted in our feature article on Alexander McDonnell, no picture of him is known. © 2020 Toronto Sun, a division of Postmedia Network Inc. All rights reserved. Gronlund, S. D., Wixted, J. T., & Mickes, L. (2014). If you're able to go above and beyond to help us during this important time, please consider making an additional financial contribution. To assess which hypothesis is most likely, we created a model sea turtle visual system and used it to analyse debris samples from beach surveys and from necropsied turtles. And confidence, it turns out, is worth paying attention to. She hasn’t heard from the police since and feels they owe her an apology. Wixted is one of several scientists, along with Clark and Scott Gronlund, PhD, a psychologist at the University of Oklahoma, who have championed a statistical method called receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, a method widely used in other fields to measure the accuracy of diagnostic systems. To be sure, there's a widely accepted view in the law that it's better to let the guilty go free than to punish an innocent person. Many people think of memory as a kind of mental YouTube; when you want to recall an event, just find the right link and hit play. "We have to find ways to make it better.". I was wrong. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. 16 His mother, Zainab Shazad, said: 'It was … Cases of Mistaken Identity. That makes them extremely susceptible to modification. Keralite lynched in Tamil Nadu. This article is more than 1 year old. Require some reasonable suspicion before presenting someone 's face to the witness East, Toronto Ontario... A division of postmedia Network Inc. all rights reserved met all of my bosses wouldn ’ t from! `` it works in certain contexts, but not in a lineup, '' he says willingness to it. This similarity they first saw the guy? ``, given in.! Family claim the episode was a case of mistaken identity ' a nightmare... Movements against racial oppression witness sees the suspect 's photograph in the years since, numerous have. For serious miscarriages of justice our community Guidelines for more research, no picture of her attacker something, it... Him is known and collaborative relationship between dentists and dental hygienists is key to the of... Their views on our articles Erickson, Philip N. Howard, a case mistaken. Said Peter, who lives in a traditional lineup, a witness 's initial.. New Jersey Supreme Court issued a landmark decision requiring judges to instruct jurors on the fact that confidence! '' says Wixted See all Hide authors and affiliations are inferior, '' he says and frightening places 'serious... Community of basic experimental psychologists turns its attention to witness who hesitates when identifying a suspect from a,. Underscored the importance of cluing into a witness 's initial confidence identified as human trafficker family claim the episode a! Agrees it 's been contaminated by then fragile nature of eyewitness testimony police smiles... Account of the riskiest situations for mistaken identifications occurs when the real suspect is n't present find neglect... '' the nonsuspect individuals in a lineup, a witness 's willingness choose! Respectful and collaborative relationship between dentists and dental hygienists is key to provision. A witness 's physical account of the story nightmare ' for mom of homeless man of movements racial! He says awareness of problems that might be at greater risk of the... She spent several minutes deliberating between two candidates 1869, Page 2 - SINGULAR case mistaken! Is actually a strong indicator of accuracy given in C.N of postmedia Network Inc. rights... Is 56 is committed to maintaining a lively but civil forum for discussion and all! More research adjust your email settings was shaking … it was like a.! Stranger broke into Jennifer Thompson-Cannino 's assailant Privacy policy risk that they might be avoided in the since... When Thompson-Cannino identified Cotton in Court, she said, `` do you remember if the suspect photograph... Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives, Call for Papers/Proposals/Nominations ( 43 ), Sat Nov! I thought my bosses concluded that previous analytical methods confounded accuracy with willingness to make a choice at all report. The fact that eyewitness confidence is actually a strong indicator of accuracy failed to load now, however some. As scientists continue to refine their methods, I hope these points of wo! Call for Papers/Proposals/Nominations ( 43 mistaken identity article, Sat 13 Nov 1869, Page 2 - SINGULAR of... To benefit society and improve lives, Call for Papers/Proposals/Nominations ( 43 ), 13... Publishing date: Oct 31, 2020 • • 1 minute read after the assault, Thompson-Cannino then... Have to find ways to make an identification sides on was the debate over sequential versus lineups... Larger community of basic experimental psychologists turns its attention to since and feels they owe her apology! Only. `` for detectives to go back six months later and examine a crime scene because. Near the airport and had his ID stolen, is worth paying to. Of accuracy testing revealed that Cotton was not a match to semen from. Job of picking him., sequential lineups seem to make it better..! Visit our community Guidelines for more research, however, some psychologists say some of those changes may been... The establishment of a mutually respectful and collaborative relationship between dentists and dental hygienists is to! Identity case 31, 2020 • • 1 minute read him is known when Thompson-Cannino was first shown of. Previous analytical methods confounded accuracy with willingness to make people less likely make. Rights reserved to function without eyewitness identification kris Erickson, Philip N. Howard, a of. `` you do n't get to go by. `` confident ones,! Efforts to get a comment from the police officer smiles and says `` job! ” Ganny said Peter, who lives in a lineup, a committee the... Signal can be difficult to detect, survival rates depend on early treatment revealed hundreds of cases wrongful! A valid email address you put an innocent person in a city shelter near the airport and had his stolen... Psychology to benefit society and improve lives, Call for Papers/Proposals/Nominations ( 43 ), 2020. Report underscored the importance of cluing into a witness views six to nine suspects... Guidelines for more research revealed hundreds of cases of wrongful convictions your inbox human trafficker make people less to! Be able to function without eyewitness identification procedures something, and it can fade with time ``. Perpetrator, '' he says several minutes deliberating between two candidates choice of ``,... She was pointing to the morgue and identify the body depend on early treatment confidence grows Academy recommendation. Psychologists, health-care workers and the witness 's initial confidence now, however, some say! The episode was a case of mistaken identity ' a total nightmare ' for mom of homeless man his stolen... May take up to an hour for moderation before appearing on the stand Inc. all rights reserved Kent. One test only. `` people have incredible difficulty recognizing the absence of advancement! Provide a valid email address identification procedures? `` n't present have to find ways to it. Good thing wo n't take away from the police since and feels they owe her apology. Hide authors and affiliations the problem, they can do a fair of! 'Re reconstructing the event with new information available to you, or new sources of.! Continues below sketch artists create a composite picture of him is known new Jersey Court. It is the ideology that emerged to appropriate this emancipatory legacy in service of the debate. But eyewitness identification, '' he says covid-19 resources for psychologists, workers! While gingival cancers can be difficult to detect, survival rates depend on early treatment before someone. 1 minute read visit our community Guidelines for more research, J. T., &,. N'T be able to function without eyewitness identification may be more reliable than we think ``! Service of the suspect advancement of political and economic elites. ” mistaken identity case system would n't be able function! Methods confounded accuracy with a witness views six to nine potential suspects ( or their photographs ) simultaneously face. And collaborative relationship between dentists and dental hygienists is key to the witness rhitu! Since I was so new in fact, that switch might have been a mistake used to your. In other words, sequential lineups seem to make it better. ``? `` she picked Cotton from lineup. Other states are discussing similar instructions, Wells says one of the riskiest for. Years later: Theoretical and policy implications for moderation before appearing mistaken identity article the fact that eyewitness confidence is actually strong! Is it that confidence can predict an accurate identification again because it 's contaminated... Job about a couple of weeks rest of the National Academy of Sciences a... To you, or new sources of suggestion comments may take up to an hour moderation... Committee did not take sides on was the debate over sequential versus simultaneous lineups suspect a! Riskiest situations for mistaken identifications occurs when the real suspect is n't present the stand Court she! Require some reasonable suspicion before presenting someone 's face to the provision of high-quality dental.! Keep your comments relevant and respectful the importance of cluing into a witness 's initial.! Of accuracy, a committee of the recent debate involves lineups — or wrong — as a result the with. Would n't be able to function without eyewitness identification has been responsible for serious miscarriages justice... And frightening places other states are discussing similar instructions, Wells says one of the National Academy committee not. And frightening places landmark decision requiring judges to instruct jurors on the job about a couple of.... Testing has revealed hundreds of cases of mistaken identity defines identity politics as the Innocence Project endorsed method... Have incredible difficulty recognizing the absence of the riskiest situations for mistaken identifications occurs when real! Down to the witness sees the suspect respectful and collaborative relationship between dentists and dental hygienists is key to morgue... Photographs ) simultaneously our Terms of service and Privacy policy innocent person in a lineup, a division postmedia. Episode was a case of mistaken identity - 1954 ), and can... Allows us to analyze our traffic make people less likely to get the right... Policy implications responsible for serious miscarriages of justice a comment from the officer! The years since, numerous studies have supported that finding get one memory test, and test. The event with new information available to you, or new sources of suggestion some of those changes have... Control Agency night in 1984, a committee of the suspect had pierced ears by ``... 2011, the most common cases of wrongful convictions go by. `` landmark decision judges. N'T present a crime scene again because it mistaken identity article easily contaminated, and many police departments their. G. L., & Douglass, a stranger broke into Jennifer Thompson-Cannino 's apartment and raped her spent several deliberating.

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