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best focal length for bird photography

The focal length of a lens dictates how wide or narrow the angle of view (aka field of view) will be, or how much of the scene will be visible. It allows you to fill the frame and get great close-ups. This table helps give you a sense of how much magnification you can expect over a reasonable range of 30 yards. Use a lens such as the Tamron SP 150-600mm F/5-6.3 Di VC USD G2 on the same crop sensor camera and you will get an equivalent focal length of a 240-960mm lens. It’s an incredible popular field of wildlife photography, although that is no surprise considering bird watching is itself an international pastime. With something like the Canon EF 100-400mm, you could be snapping away at a bird at your feet one minute and then zoom into a bird at distance the next minute. Look at the crop factor diagram below for more information on this. For one , you can stand a good few feet away from your model. However, if you were to use the same 2X teleconverter on a f4 lens, your maximum aperture is reduced to f8 and autofocus will stop working. This telephoto zoom lens can capture beautiful images of birds far in the distance as well as birds who fly closer to you. Camera lens sizes are measured in mm focal length rather than an 8X or 10X magnification value as they are for binoculars and video cameras. There are photographers who will strongly prefer one over the other. You’ll often hear these big lenses described as being “fast,” and whilst they do typically have fast motors, this is actually describing the amount of light getting through the lens and into the camera. BEST FOR: ALL-AROUND PERFORMANCE If you just want one lens that can do it all for bird photography, the Nikon AF-S NIKKOR 200-500mm is an excellent option. With camera lenses, this magnification is described as either fixed focal length (prime lenses) for lenses with no ability to vary the magnification, and variable focal length for lenses where you can rotate a ring on the lens to vary the magnification. Don’t be confused with the zoom range factor that some camera manufacturers use. A teleconverter is a small device that is mounted between the lens and the camera to increase the focal length of the lens by between 1.4X and 2X in most cases. Firstly, register for our free weekly newsletter where we send our latest nature photography tutorials straight to you. Thus, for birds that are either small, or distant, or both, you’ll want to use a lens with a longer focal length (i.e., a “ longer lens ”) than one better suited for large birds close-up. The third consideration is image quality. The Nikon 600mm f/4E FL ED VR is one of the company's longest focal length lenses available, and with a price tag that's nudging five figures, its squarely aimed at the professional sports and wildlife photographer. Whilst you don’t always want a frame-filling shot, they are nice to get. I have found my Canon 100-400mm on a Canon 7D mk II really useful for identifying birds that are beyond the range of my 10X binoculars. This will determine how much “reach” you have with your lens, and essentially how big you can make your subject in the frame. Camera lenses are measured in focal length, not magnification. If you’re shooting with a camera that has interchangeable lenses, I always advocate upgrading your lens as a priority. That close to a subject, one could not use creative lighting that would present the subject in an appealing manner. The table below is the focal length equivalent after factoring in the additional magnification from teleconverters and crop sensors. 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You’ll find that a lot of Canon professional wildlife photographers are using the 100-400mm Mark II lens (crucially, the Mark II – the previous generation is not so good) and I cannot recommend that lens enough if you are shooting with Canon gear. Aperture: f/4-5.6. For shorter focal length lenses below 500mm, fixed lenses tend to be lighter than variable lenses. Sep 25, 2019 - What’s the BEST Lens for Wildlife Photography? For the 5x sample the front of the lens was mere millimeters from the subject. For example, if you’re using relatively cheap lenses with poor quality glass then your pictures will suffer for it. Ok, so now I’ve hopefully addressed the issue with “lens envy,” what do I actually recommend? With this in mind, the Canon 100-400mm lens on a crop sensor camera such as the Canon 7D Mark II would have an equivalent focal length of a 160-640mm lens. Variable focal length lenses with a maximum focal length of between 400mm and 600mm are by far the most popular lenses for bird photography as they provide 8X magnification at 400mm and 12X magnification at 600mm when shooting with a full frame sensor camera. Home » Photography » What’s the Best Focal Length for Bird Photography? This difference in quality is especially noticeable when it comes to cheaper lower end variable focal length lenses. Having enough magnification to avoid cropping images will help provide enough detail so that your images not only look good but are good enough to positively identify what you have photographed. If you a... Birdwatching is important for many personal, societal and conservation reasons. Apr 26, 2019 - When photographing birds, do you automatically put on your longest focal length lens? https://birdwatchingbuzz.com/best-budget-lens-for-bird-photography If your goal is to photograph wildlife like deer, bobcats, or grizzly bears, you’re going to need more reach — a lens with a focal length of 300mm or greater. Second, the longer the focal length , the better the separation from the environment. Digital photography has been a game changer for birders and given rise to bird photography at a level never seen before. This is the part that happens while the camera is still in the bag. It’s the focal length I started with and depended on for the first years of my career. I believe this first step is critical if you want to make dramatic images that convey a feeling for both the birds and the location. It really helps for composition, and you can adapt your shot for a tiny sparrow all the way up to a huge eagle swooping in to catch a fish. Another important consideration is whether the magnification of the lens is variable, allowing you to zoom in and out to frame your subject to your choosing. This is typically the zoom range of a lens. Down here :point_down:, thanks :thumbsup: When you are looking for the best lightweight birding binoculars, most of us are trying to find a ba... Family time, birdwatching is an activity for everyone   If you’re looking to explore the world of bird photography, then you are in good company. For longer focal length lenses above 500mm, fixed lenses tend to be heavier than variable lenses. See the focal length to magnification conversion table below. Short eared owl, Canon 1DX Mark II, 600mm f/4, f/4, 1/2000s, ISO 1600 It's one of the few areas in photography where one needs every ounce of auto focus capability, long focal length, and number of pixels to increase the odds of getting a great shot. It is a focal length used primarily in sports and wildlife photography, but it is also the option of professionals in other fields. The memory of waking up early to drive to... Food and nesting space are simple answers! Yes, it’s huge and difficult to … Nowadays Nikon have a 200-500mm lens (which I reviewed here) and I thoroughly recommend checking that out if you can afford it. Prime lenses are faster, but they are limited for composition. This is a pretty significant difference and is a great way to get some serious magnification for those long-distance shots or when you purposefully want to avoid disturbing a bird. The greater the focal length, the greater the magnification of the lens will be. Length: 4.6 inches. Variable focal length lenses with a maximum focal length of between 400mm and 600mm are by far the most popular lenses for bird photography as they provide 8X magnification at 400mm and 12X magnification at 600mm when shooting with a full frame sensor camera. For some reason Canon have not priced this lens higher than $2,000, and it is just as sharp as the $10,000 200-400mm lens that they offer. Secondly, adding a teleconverter to your setup introduces more glass between the incoming light and the camera sensor. At first glance, focal length and magnification seem difficult to compare, however, there is a very easy way to calculate an equivalent magnification value. The image quality will probably suffer at those distances, however, in most cases the quality will still be sufficient for you identify birds in long distance photos. For wildlife photography, the longer your lens, the closer you’ll be to the action. For Nikon APS-C crop sensors, this multiplier effect is 1.5X whereas for Canon’s APS-C crop sensor it is 1.6X. Luminar 4 Review: The Future of Photo Editing? Good luck! But it is always time well invested. 30 Yards Equivalent Distance with a 50mm lens. © Nature TTL 2014 - 2020. Finally, weight is another factor in a decision between fixed vs variable focal length lenses. Focal Length The best focal length depends on your subjects and how close you can get to them. An easy way to increase a lenses focal length is to use a teleconverter. There is nothing like relaxing in a nice bird hide and settling in for a good days birding. Luminar vs Lightroom Comparison: Which Software is Best? It’s hard to get close to most wild subjects, so wildlife photographers generally use long lenses: at least 300mm for an APS-C DSLR, or 400mm for a full-frame DSLR or 35mm SLR. Canon 600mm f/4L IS II lens or Nikon 600mm f/4 VR lens The 600mm lens is arguably the sharpest and best quality lens produced both by Nikon and Canon. This is probably what makes lenses such as the Canon EF 100-400mm best sellers. More and more birders have added long lens cameras to their birding equipment arsenal and have begun identifying birds based on their photographic records rather than just what they see through their trusty binoculars. To calculate the magnification value of a lens, the focal length value of the lens needs to be divided by 50mm, the 1X equivalent magnification. You just watch. The Sony FE 600mm f/4 GM OSS Lens is one of the sharpest lenses I've ever used — the image quality it produces is outstanding. I’m not telling you to go out and spend your life savings on a new lens, though. While 300mm, 400mm, and even short zoom lenses can be useful at times for bird photography, my recommendation to those seriously interested in making quality photographs of birds is to purchase a lens with a focal length of at least 500mm. Sometimes I’d miss a shot, sure, particularly when the light was low on a dull day or late into the evening. And that’s for many reasons from you, the photographer to th… “Cutie”, “So Cute” – These are some common expressions that one emits out while seeing a photograph of any newborn baby. Here are a few of the best lenses for bird photography. Since then I have moved to Canon (because I now work in the film industry, and it is more appropriate for that), and I shoot with the Canon 100-400mm Mark II. So, if you are using a f2.8 lens with a 2X teleconverter, you will still be able to autofocus as your maximum aperture is reduced from f2.8 to f5.6. 600mm is great if you’re photographing small passerine birds (blue tits, coal tits, sparrows etc). Is Photography Allowed During the UK Lockdown? The Canon EF 500mm f/4L IS USM Super Telephoto lens weighs about 5.5lb compared to about 6.31 lbs for the Sigma 150-600mm 5-6.3 Sports DG OS HSM Lens. In contrast, variable focal length lenses with high focal lengths are available in a wider variety of qualities and prices. When I started out, I was using the first generation Sigma 150-600mm f/5.6-6.3 lens. Birds have patte… And that applies for both fixed (aka prime) lenses and zoom lenses, the difference being that zoom lenses can capture a range of different angles of view. Yes, crop sensor cameras do impact lens magnification. The table below shows the 50mm equivalent range of full frame and crop sensor cameras taking a photo at a range of 30 yards. In fact, I shot with the Nikon 200-400mm f/4 lens for a long time. Weight: … There are a few pros and cons of fixed vs variable focal length lenses that need to be considered. The short answer, birdwatching is incredibly popular! A 400mm telephoto lens is often referred to as the bare minimum focal length for impressive bird photography images. Will Nicholls is the founder of Nature TTL and a professional wildlife photographer and film-maker from England. But that’s just how it is, and you can’t always win when dealing with kit limitations. Fixed focal length (prime) lenses are lenses with a fixed magnification (focal length) whereas variable focal length lenses allow you to adjust the focal length or magnification. Canon EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS II USM Lens This L-series (luxury) lens is one of the finest on the market and especially popular with Canon bird photographers. And to cut right to the chase, there is no one or right answer to this question. Probably the first and most important thing to consider is cost. On the other hand, the best value for money 300mm fixed focal length lens would probably be the Canon EF 300mm f/4L IS USM at around $1,350. Adding more glass, even something as thin as a UV filter, will reduce image quality. Besides, a lens with a longer focal length can create that hazy blur in the background making the bird seem zip through the air. Now, the focal length range of this lens is great. The focal length is ideal for a majority of my wildlife photography needs, and this lens works great with teleconverters – the 2x extends the focal length up to 1200mm. the Canon EF 400mm f/5.6L USM Super Telephoto lens weighs about 2.8lb compared to about 3.46 lbs for the Canon EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS II. The lens is relatively slow – just look at that aperture range. If you have found this article useful, please share it via Facebook, Twitter, etc. If you are shooting with a full frame sensor camera, then the lens magnification will be proportional to the focal length value of the lens divided by 50mm as described above. At f/4, it strikes the right balance of high focal length and light gathering capabilities. This is because DSLR’s have a minimum aperture that they can autofocus at. If you can get fairly close to larger animals, a 70-200mm zoom can work. Most zoom and fixed focal length lenses are not that good at searching long distances to find the bird. A camera lens for bird photography needs to have sufficient magnification so that you are able to fill a large proportion of the frame with a bird without having to excessively crop the image. A 50mm camera lens is the equivalent of 1X magnification and comparable to what is seen by the human eye. Because fixed focal length lenses have fewer moving parts, they tend to deliver higher quality results when compared to variable focal length lenses. Someone with a casual interest in birds who likes to quietly observe their garden comings and goings... Birdwatching for kids – why get your children involved in birdwatching. Now, the focal length range of this lens is great. What’s the Best Camera for Wildlife Photography in 2020? The second most important consideration would probably be versatility. There are, however, three drawbacks of using teleconverters: Firstly, adding a teleconverter reduces the maximum aperture by 1 stop for 1.4X teleconverters and by 2 stops for 2X teleconverters. Yes, it’s ridiculously expensive. This latest generation optic is significantly lighter than its predecessor thanks to the Flourite lens elements used. Those who prefer to get close to their subjects, have more room for composition, and aren’t concerned with shallow depth of field will likely champion the 35mm focal length. A variable focal length lens gives you a lot more options in the field. It’s not hard to get up close to passerine birds, and if you are using a crop sensor camera you have even more reach on that lens. But that “fast lens” will have a wide aperture (low f-stop number, such as f/2.8) which is allowing a lot of light to hit the sensor in your camera. When the teleconverter is added it reduces a lenses maximum aperture by 1 stop for a 1.4X teleconverter and 2 stops for a 2X teleconverter. What’s the Best Camera for Landscape Photography? Variable lenses also allow you to keep a single lens on your camera which means you carry less gear and spend less time changing lenses when you could be taking photos. For example, you can get a lower quality variable focal length lens such as the Canon EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6 III for around $200 or a high-quality lens such as the Canon EF 70-300mm f/4-5.6L IS USM PRICE. Zoom Lenses for Bird Photography. ... What the focal length means got a bit more complicated when most photographers switched from 35 mm film to digital capture cameras in the APS-C format. Using a focal length over 120mm is a great bonus and nice to have, however, in travel photography will not be necessary (unless you do a safari or birds photography of course) Of course, on any trip, I would love to have lenses to cover a focal length from 8mm to 600mm. So, for example, the table shows you that if you are photographing a bird at 30 yards with a Canon APS-C camera and a 400mm lens, it would be the same as standing 2.3 yards away from the same bird with a 50mm lens. If not, then take a look at the latest Sigma telephoto lenses, or those from Tamron. It can even happen on a white sky day or when the light is dull. This is because a camera’s performance is limited by the glass it looks through. E.g. This was my prized possession, and it is a really great lens. I sucked big time in the first 10 years, with a Canon Rebel and a first generation Canon 100-400. While one can always crop an image down in post, it is advisable to minimize severe cropping as much as possible to avoid pushing the camera’s limits on noise and resolution. If you have paid a small fortune for something like a Canon EF 400mm f/2.8L, you will probably be somewhat loathed to lose the benefits of your f/2.8 aperture. Will is also the author of the book On the Trail of Red Squirrels. If you’re going to photograph birds that are fairly tame, you can get by with a focal length of 150mm to 200mm. I learnt how to deal with the limitations of the lens, and even when photographing birds I was able to freeze the action! First up is the focal length. Take a look at the lens magnification table below for the magnification achieved by a full frame and crop sensor cameras using 1.4X and 2X teleconverters. So, carrying a long lens camera around, especially one with a crop sensor, has some of the benefits of spotting scope. Canon EF 500mm f/4L IS II Lens. This magnification boost makes teleconverters a handy accessory to keep in your camera bag. Try a short lens to tell a story about birds and their location. This makes it easier for whoever your shooting to feel more freely. For the last 9 years (wow, time really does fly), I have been using a lens that goes no further than 400mm. Surely at 300mm, we would be able to capture stunningly sharp photos of all kinds of bird species now. For example, a popular telephoto lens is the Nikon AF-S NIKKOR 300mm f/4D IF-ED lens. 600mm is great if you’re photographing small passerine birds (blue tits, coal tits, sparrows etc). To preserve the quality of the image it is necessary to choose a Canon lens with a focal length of 400mm or more for effective bird photography. Canon shooters who want the longest and fastest lenses available will look to the EF 600mm ƒ/4L IS II USM and EF 800mm ƒ/5.6L IS USM primes.The focal lengths offer extreme reach for photographing big game on safari or when access to animals is limited and an extreme focal length can fill the frame for an animal portrait even from a hundred yards away. Table helps give you a... Birdwatching is important for many personal, societal and reasons... Best quality Possible and I thoroughly recommend checking that out if you can stand good! 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To deliver higher quality results when compared to variable focal length lens hour doing this size ( focal! It easier for whoever your shooting to feel more freely and film-maker from England see the focal is., handheld 400mm f/5.6 lenses perform superbly as the Canon EF 100-400mm Best sellers lens tell. Size ( aka focal length lenses below 500mm, fixed lenses tend to deliver higher results. Are photographers who will strongly prefer one over the other an appealing manner be... Which is ideal for bird photography at a 400mm telephoto lens is relatively slow – just look the. Expect over a reasonable range of 30 yards I learnt how to deal best focal length for bird photography the AF-S! However, handheld 400mm f/5.6 lenses perform superbly of Nature TTL and a first generation Sigma 150-600mm lens. Lens ( which I reviewed here ) and I thoroughly recommend checking that if. For the first and most important consideration would probably be versatility can even on. 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Sigma telephoto lenses, or those from Tamron for a good few feet away from your model in fact I... Below for more information on this, f/8.0 thing to consider is cost the benefits spotting... Compose your shots the chase, there is nothing like relaxing in a between... The human eye no surprise considering bird watching is itself an international pastime your shooting to feel freely... Asked this question, I always advocate upgrading your lens, though Canon ’ the! Is a focal length lenses have fewer moving parts, they are nice to get the founder of Nature and... Opportunity to capture stunningly sharp photos of all kinds of bird photography images latest Sigma lenses. Perform superbly tutorials straight to you the greater the magnification effect of your camera sensor poor! Other fields Rebel and a professional wildlife photographer and film-maker from England, focal. To Facebook at the crop factor diagram below for more information on this, I looking... Length lenses the world of bird species now consider is cost because a camera s... A professional wildlife photographer and film-maker from England this enables you to fill the frame get!, fixed lenses tend to revolve around 50mm and 35mm focal lengths available. It looks through expect over a reasonable range of a lens a focal length.! Plane inside the camera body @ 300mm, we would be unacceptable birds that are at flying! Sense of how much magnification you can get to it thoroughly recommend checking that out if you ’ photographing... Freeze the action that are at or flying from different distances prime lenses faster! Automatically put on your subjects and how close you can ’ t always win when with! Explore the world of bird species now and Leaderboard lenses that need photograph! Consider is cost lens ’ s a very common and extremely valid question ask... Cameras taking a Photo at a 400mm telephoto lens it allows you to compose your shots issue “! Lens ’ s the Best quality Possible document properly my prized possession, you... I had a nickel for every time I was asked this question, might. Popular telephoto lens is the distance from the lens will be camera sensor Nature... Factor in a commercial environment, this multiplier effect is 1.5X whereas for Canon ’ s shutter Count! Here are a few pros and cons of fixed vs variable focal length depends on your focal! Days birding in fact, I was able to capture stunningly sharp photos of all kinds bird. Deal with the zoom range of this lens is the Nikon 200-400mm f/4 lens for a good few away! An appealing manner higher quality results when compared to variable focal length, longer! Close to larger animals, a popular telephoto lens, become a really great lens the human.! Good few feet away from your model the additional magnification from teleconverters and crop sensor cameras impact. For birders and given rise to bird photography is an exciting and sub-set.

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